5D Data Visualisation
For a while I've been interested in visualisation
data. It's something that I have to deal with every day at
work and I've tried to learn from many of the people active in this
field, not least Ben Fry (one of the creators of Processing and author
of the excellent "Visualizing
Data") and Edward R Tufte (if you're
interested in this data visualisation I would recommend you buy all
My main problem is this: how can I see the
response of a system (in my case an aircraft concept design) when I
change its inputs? It's not an uncommon
problem by any means but for me the complexity comes from the
inputs and outputs that I'd like to be able to see & understand.
In my work I can generally expect to use at least two inputs
but more often three inputs. While I will only need to see one main
will also be many other supplementary outputs (in the form of constraints: valid and invalid areas) on the same range of inputs.
pretty sure that this problem has been solved elsewhere and I'd love to be told about other people's solutions, but I was also curious about what
I might learn if I tried to solve the problem. In the end it was an
I turned to Processing and set up a few approaches
(I'll release the
code when I can get it beaten into shape) and I managed to get two
visualisation approaches for 3D/4D datasets (three to four independent
variables, 1 output). Neither of these were new (arrays of carpet
plots and contour plots), I'll describe them if people are
However, I wanted to see how many dimensions I
could get an interactive visualisation to work for, in the end I managed one that would allow five.
I used multiple copies of a volume plot (a 3D
contour plot), also called an isosurface,
to display the data.
An isosurface is a 3D analogue of the isolines
seen on a contour
plot, it is a surface representing all the points in 3D space where a
value is constant. They are often used in aircraft design
(amongst other places) to visualise the results of CFD (Computational
calculations where they one might used to represent the boundary
between sub- and super- sonic flow, for example.
With an isosurface I can display the three input
variables on the three spatial
dimensions of the plot (up/down, left/right, in/out), I can then
display the result using an isosurface. In some ways this
be ideal because, unlike a contour plot, I can now only see one value
of output at a time (like seeing only 1 contour line, although in the
this turns out not to be a problem for me at least) unless I go to
partially transparent approaches which were slow and didn't work that
well for me.
- the parts you can't use
The display of
constraints on charts is important for the use of data in aircraft
concept design and sizing.
data produced during an aircraft sizing trade (a scan through a set of
inputs) will produce points that do not meet all of the aircraft's
requirements (takeoff performance, time taken to climb to altitude,
approach speed etc.)
This means that it is necessary to find ways to show which points do not meet (or which
meet) the requirements. Interpolation allows the behaviour of the
constraints to be estimated in unsampled regions between data points.
I can also use isosurfaces to display my
constraints, I just need to overlay the main
response with the secondary constraint response isosurfaces (where the constraint is just met) and I was
easily able to display the valid/invalid regions.
I ended up with something that looks like this:
The first three independent variables are displayed on the three
of each isosurface plot. The main response is the grey
surface, the value of the output that is used to generate the grey
surface is controlled by the vertical slider on the right.
It's possible to change the displayed value by moving the
slider interactively and so can, by inspection, find the best points in
any plot. The best point in this case is constrained by the red,
green and yellow constraint surfaces. For the sake of argument we
may assume that the valid space is above them (although the plots may
be rolled and rotated together for a clear view).
Each isosurface shows the data at one particular value of the fourth
and fifth variables. By using a 2D array of isosurfaces we can show the
data for a range of the fourth and fifth variables
The sliders on the top and left side represent where in the range of
the fourth and fifth variables we are most interested and control
interpolation of the data at these values. This interpolated data
is displayed on the larger repeater plot on the right hand side.
In the example below we are looking at the data around the middle
of the range of the fourth variable (across) and about a quarter of the
way down the fifth (down):
The repeater is further downsampled using the smallest horizontal
slider which gives a cross section of the repeater isosurface on a
conventional contour plot. Here I've tried to find the best (in
this case lowest) unconstrained point in the range, it's at the lower right:
Is it easy to use? Well, sort of. I don't find it a
problem and in a couple of cases it has been really useful - I suppose
I've got used to it. I don't think that I'll ever use it to
explain a dataset to anyone else though and it's a lot
clearer used interactively, pictures of it don't really make it easy to
see the way that the data changes through the range but as a proof of
concept it was really interesting to work on.
code I wrote is in a library for Processing already but it's all but
unusable and has no documentation - I'll release it when I get a chance
to clean it up a bit. The isosurface implementation is slow(ish)
but precise at the edges, something all of the other implementations
(mainly of marching cubes) have been not so good at - I needed accuracy on small numbers of data points.
- How to make volume plots (I wrote my own implementation of the marching tetrahedrons
algorithm - in fact I deduced it independently from scratch before I
knew it existed, thought I was a genius then realised it had existed
for 30 years already and felt silly)
- How to make contour plots using marching squares